Background The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular characteristics of isoniazid resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), as well as its contribution to the dissemination of multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB) in rural areas of eastern China.

Methods A population-based epidemiological study was conducted in two rural counties of eastern China from 2004 to 2005. In total, 131 isoniazid resistant MTB isolates were molecularly characterized by DNA sequencing and genotyped by IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and spoligotyping.

Preya Velji,1 Vladyslav Nikolayevskyy,1 Timothy Brown, and Francis Drobniewski 
Author affiliations: Barts and The London School of Medicine, Queen Mary, University of London, London, UK (P. Velji, V. Nikolayevskyy); and Health Protection Agency National Mycobacterium Reference Laboratory, London (T. Brown, F. Drobniewski)

Suggested citation for this article

To address conflicting results about the stability of variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) loci and their value in prospective molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, we conducted a large prospective population-based analysis of all M. tuberculosis strains in a metropolitan setting. Optimal and reproducible conditions for reliable PCR and fragment analysis, comprising enzymes, denaturing conditions, and capillary temperature, were identified for a panel of hypervariable loci, including 3232, 2163a, 1982, and 4052. A total of 2,261 individual M. tuberculosis isolates and 265 sets of serial isolates were analyzed by using a standardized 15-loci VNTR panel, then an optimized hypervariable loci panel. The discriminative ability of loci varied substantially; locus VNTR 3232 varied the most, with 19 allelic variants and Hunter-Gaston index value of 0.909 unNN. Hypervariable loci should be included in standardized panels because they can provide consistent comparable results at multiple settings, provided the proposed conditions are adhered to.

 OBJECTIVE: Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase (UCH-L1), also called neuronal-specific protein gene product (PGP 9.3), is highly abundant in neurons. To assess the reliability of UCH-L1 as a potential biomarker for traumatic brain injury (TBI) this study compared cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of UCH-L1 from adult patients with severe TBI to uninjured controls; and examined the relationship between levels with severity of injury, complications and functional outcome.

DESIGN: This study was designed as prospective case control study.

The majority of individuals infected with M.tuberculosis achieve lifelong containment of4 the bacillus. What constitutes this effective host immune response is poorly understood.

We compared frequencies of IFN-γ-secreting T-cells specific for 5 Region-of-Difference-1-encoded antigens and 1 DosR-encoded antigen in 205 individuals with either active disease (n=167), whose immune responses had failed to contain the bacillus, or with presumed non-recent latent infection (n=38), who had successfully achieved immune control, and a further 149 individuals with recently acquired latent infection.

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2009 Edition


Tuberculosis is a serious re-emerging infectious disease. An estimated 10-15 million United States (US) citizens have latent tuberculosis infections, and without detection and treatment, approximately 10% of these individuals will develop tuberculosis at some point in their lives. Costly tuberculosis outbreaks still occur. The growing threat of multi-drug resistant (MDR) and extensively-drug resistant (XDR) TB not only leads to increased cases of tuberculosis but also increased costs. Tuberculosis-related healthcare costs approach $1 billion each year in the US.



Objectives. To evaluate tuberculin skin tests (TST) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) assay in the detection of latent tuberculosis (TB) infection during tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antagonist treatment in Korean patients with initial negative TST result.

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